Ravelrig bog nearby indicates barley type pollen present though pastoral agriculture was probably dominant in the local area during this period. However the presence of oak in the hearth waste indicates that wild woods still survived in the area around Ravelrig too. The palisaded homestead at Ravelrig shares similarities with other settlements in eastern Scotland, indicating a continuation of settlement type and construction methods from the Late Bronze Age into the Early Iron Age, a continuity that may also be reflected in the lithic assemblage recovered from the Ravelrig excavation, which conforms to several of the characteristics of Iron Age lithic production. The analysis of pollen from Ravelrig bog has concluded that the same period, 600 - 400 BC, when the Ravelrig palisaded settlement was occupied, coincided with agricultural intensification, and so may demonstrate the renewed expansion of settlement into the uplands during the first millennium BC observed elsewhere in eastern Scotland. To the immediate west of Ravelrig is the hillfort of Kaimes. Radiocarbon dating from excavations there indicates that this hillfort originated around 400 BC, just when occupation at Ravelrig ceased. It is possible then that political or social changes in the wider landscape led to the abandonment of the single household settlement at Ravelrig in favour of a more populous and defensive location at Kaimes Hill. GUARD Archaeology is extremely grateful to Tarmac (Northern) Ltd for funding the excavation, post-excavation and publication of this work. John Lawson of the City of Edinburgh Council Archaeology Service provided advice during the course of this project. GUARD Archaeology especially thanks Donna Maguire who directed the excavation in 2009. The full results of the excavation can be found in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (Volume 143).